Causes of the Battle of Surabaya November 10, 1945

Causes of the Battle of Surabaya November 10, 1945 – The Battle of Surabaya was a heroic event that took place on November 10, 1945.

As one of the sites of historical battles against the arrival of allies, the Battle of Surabaya is also known as the Battle of Surabaya.

Read also: Tugu Pahlawan Surabaya, a Monument Established to Commemorate the Battle of Surabaya on November 10, 1945.

The Battle of Surabaya became one of the biggest battles in the history of the Indonesian National Revolution and later became a symbol as well as a proof of the spirit of Indonesian patriotism against colonialism.

For the sacrifice and courage of the heroes in the Battle of Surabaya, every November 10 is celebrated as Heroes’ Day.

Read also: The Battle of Surabaya: Causes, Statistics, Chronology, and Effects

Origins of the Battle of Surabaya

Based on historical records, in general the background of the Battle of Surabaya was the arrival of allied forces that took action that caused strong resistance from the people of Surabaya.

The following are some details about the events that led to the Battle of Surabaya on November 10, 1945.

Read also: Brief Biography of Bung Tomo, Figure in the Battle of Surabaya 10 November 1945

1. Arrival of British and Dutch troops

Earlier, on September 29, 1945, the Commander of the Allied Forces of the Netherland East Indies (AFNEI), namely, Lieutenant General Philip Christison, arrived in Jakarta.

They would carry out the tasks of AFNEI in Indonesia, that is to disarm the Japanese, return the Japanese soldiers to their country, free allies who were under Japanese slavery, and maintain the situation that existed in Indonesia after the Japanese soldiers surrendered.

Then on August 24, 1945, an agreement was made between the UK and the Netherlands which was part of the Civil Affairs Agreement, regarding the UK’s intention to help the Netherlands return to power in Indonesia.

The Allied Prisoner of War Return Team which was part of AFNEI arrived in Surabaya on September 19, 1945.

However, the team did not coordinate in advance with the Indonesian leadership in Surabaya.

Furthermore, at the end of September, a team under the leadership of a Dutch Navy officer, Captain Huijer, returned to Surabaya without any permission from the British to accept surrender to the Japanese.

This was followed by the surrender of various means of transport, anti-aircraft guns, tanks, and more by the Japanese on October 3, 1945, which was soon captured by TKR troops and captured Captain Huijer.

Only on October 25, 1945, allied troops who were members of AFNEI led by Brigadier General Aubertin Walter Sothern Mallaby landed at Tanjung Perak Harbor using the battleship Eliza Thompson.

The initial objective of AFNEI’s arrival was to find prisoners of war, disarm them and maintain order.

Based on several meetings held, the Indonesian side agreed to give permission to the British allies to enter the city of Surabaya and take several things according to their duties.

The British also said and emphasized that they did not involve NICA or the Dutch military in their arrival.

AFNEI soldiers then set up defense posts and took control of several important objects in Surabaya by the British, such as the Postmaster General’s Office, the BPM Building, the bus station, the railway station, to the Internatio Building.

2. Yamato Hotel Incident

In parallel, on September 19, 1945 the Yamato Hotel Incident occurred, that is, an incident where the Dutch flag (red-white-blue) was torn into an Indonesian flag (red-white) on the mast of the Yamato Hotel, Surabaya.

This was prompted by the emergence of the Indonesian government decree dated August 31, 1945 which stated that from September 1, 1945 the national flag Sang Saka Merah Putih was always flown in Indonesia.

Flag raising movements are spreading in all corners of Surabaya.

A group of Dutch people under the leadership of Mr. WVCh. Ploegman on the night of 18 September 1945, at 21.00 WIB, raised the Dutch flag (Red-White-Blue), without the permission of the Provincial Government of the Republic of Indonesia in Surabaya, on a pole on the upper floor of Yamato. Hotel, north side.

The youth of Surabaya who saw this the next day were angry because they thought the Dutch had insulted the sovereignty of Indonesia.

Negotiations were unsuccessful, so Hariyono and Koesno Wibowo managed to bring down the Dutch flag, tear off the blue part, and put it up on the pole again as the Red and White flag.

3. Raid Kalisosok Prison

On the night of October 26, 1945, a force under the command of Captain Shaw stormed the Kalisosok Prison in an attempt to free Captain Huijer and free the Dutch prisoners in the building.

This move had deviated from the original objective of the AFNEI troops when they arrived in the Surabaya area.

As a result of this incident, the allied forces were suspected to be run by the Dutch Civil Administration of the Indies (NICA), which are Dutch citizens who had infiltrated to restore the rule of the Dutch East Indies in Indonesia.

4. Appearance of Ultimatum Flyers and Affiliates

On October 27, 1945, using a Dakota plane, the Allies also dropped a document that contained a decision to return all Japanese weapons and armor within 48 months that had been signed by Major General Hawthorn.

Furthermore, General Hawthorn also issued a final order that he would punish those who disobey British orders.

The leaflets caused anger and rejection by the people of Surabaya. It did not take long for the people of Surabaya to unite and move forward in an effort to drive out the allied troops.

On October 27, 1945, at 2 o’clock in the afternoon, the first contact of arms occurred between PRISAI youth soldiers and Gurka soldiers who were from the allied side.

Then, on October 28, 1945 there was a war between the people of Surabaya led by Dr. Mustopo against the allied forces.

On the same day, at midnight, Bung Tomo announced the spirit of resistance against the invaders through Radio Rebellion Against Allies, which created an atmosphere of revolutionary spirit throughout the city.

On October 29, 1945, the young people of Surabaya who continued to fight succeeded in regaining control of important objects taken by the allies.

Until October 30, 1945, small attacks turned into a war that claimed many victims, civilians and soldiers on both Indonesian and British sides.

This forced General DC Hawthorn to seek help from President Sukarno to calm the situation and organize a ceasefire.

5. Death of Brigadier General Mallaby

After the signing of the armistice between Indonesian and British troops on October 29, 1945, the situation in Surabaya gradually deteriorated.

However, on October 30, 1945, Brigadier General Mallaby, who was accompanied by Captain Smith, Captain Shaw and Lieutenant Laughland, was suddenly stopped by a group of youths when he was about to cross the Red Bridge.

This prompted Major Venugopall to throw a grenade at the youths, leading to a shootout.

In the Buick where he was traveling, Brigadier General Mallaby was shot and killed by an Indonesian youth whose name has not yet been revealed, while the car was set on fire due to a grenade explosion which caused Mallaby’s body to be unable to accelerate. to be recognized.

The incident drew criticism from General Christison as Commander of British Forces in Indonesia. Captain Shaw also issued a threat to deal with all forces, sea, land and air.

On 9 November 1945, Major General EC Mansergh again issued an ultimatum to the people of Surabaya which contained several points, namely:

  1. Indonesian people must put the red and white flag down.
  2. the youth had to face “hands up” and were required to be ready to sign a letter of unconditional surrender.
  3. women and children must leave the city before 19.00 WIB evening.
  4. locals were threatened with the death penalty if they still carried arms after 06.00 WIB on 10 November 1945.

If not fulfilled, then the allies will attack Surabaya on November 10, 1945.

Responding to the decision, Governor Suryo through the radio at 23.00 that night announced the rejection.

Of course on November 10, 1945 at 06.00 WIB the Battle of Surabaya broke out.

The first battle of Surabaya took place in Tanjung Perak on 10 November 1945 and ended in Gunung Sari on 28 November 1945.

The British had to attack the city of Surabaya from different sides from land, sea and air to reduce the civilian power of Suroboyo youth.

In that battle, Suroboyo’s youth managed to defend Surabaya for three weeks, before falling into the hands of the Allies.


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